Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Commercial and investment banking Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

Business and venture banking - Essay Example Perhaps the most recent pattern experienced in the financial business is the internationalization of banking establishments. As much as it accompanies an assortment of focal points, it has a few hindrances important. To begin with, there is expanded rivalry in the nearby financial industry in this manner representing a test to privately based banks. Little nearby clients recently served by neighborhood venture banks are currently being focused by immense worldwide banks looking for new demographic in the worldwide market (Crocket 2001, p.1). Besides, the expense of social affair data is getting progressively high combined with the expense of guideline. Most banks working on the worldwide field are confronting amazingly high working cost influencing their gainfulness adversely (the market analyst 2015, p.1). It is the obligation of the home office to screen the activities of every one of its auxiliaries and follow guideline necessity of the host nation when setting up auxiliaries. The more auxiliaries a bank have the higher the expense of checking and guideline. Further, much the same as setting up some other specialty unit introductory capital is required and now and again might be excessively high. Various nations have various guidelines concerning the underlying capital venture required before another firm can be allowed activity consent. Thusly, worldwide financial foundations are in danger of high starting capital venture particularly where an enormous sum is required to go about as security for the customers’ stores if there should arise an occurrence of liquidation.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Barriers for Parent Engagement in Childcare Services

Boundaries for Parent Engagement in Childcare Services Fundamentally examine the boundaries that guardians may look in connecting with one region of the children’s administrations. What job would practitioners be able to play in conquering a portion of these hindrances? Guardians and specialists attempting to get to help for kids with handicaps face numerous hindrances while drawing in with children’s administrations. While changes have occurred in the public eye over the past number of years it can in any case be said that there is consistently opportunity to get better in children’s administrations. This TMA will concentrate on youngsters with an inability and how guardians and experts face the boundaries of being heard and getting to the assistance accessible to them. While youngsters with incapacities have been coordinated into standard school or given the open door inside an exceptional need schools, guardians despite everything face boundaries of the joining of multi-offices and getting the correct assistance and guidance. In the course of recent years change has occurred from kids with exceptional requirements been concealed away to now being incorporated into standard instruction or extraordinary need schools. This has created because of the implantation of new laws and enactment to secure child’s rights for example children’s NI request (1995), Education Act (2011), and furthermore the current Multi year procedure for kids and youngsters in Northern Ireland 2006-2016. While this has achieved noteworthy change and better nature of instruction for unique needs youngsters it very well may be basically contended that guardians despite everything face numerous boundaries inside the training framework. Ashley Walter (2014) distinguished that youngsters with incapacities have more neglected wellbeing needs. This was additionally observed more from offspring of rustic zones. Guardians are not just having to adapting to the extra needs of their child’s incapacity, yet additionally the ob structions of looking for help and being heard for their youngster to get the correct instruction. As a non-permanent parents for an incapacitated kid I can allude to these guardians as I too found the hindrances of referred to what administrations was accessible as data is restricted. Lambing (2009) bolsters these guardians when his investigations recognized that guardians face the hindrances of not knowing how the framework functions and the help accessible to access for their child’s needs. It can likewise be similarly contended that guardians themselves set the obstruction to draw in with the administrations. This might be an aftereffect of not grappling with their child’s incapacity being trying to claim ignorance or that they feel embarrassed about not having the option to adapt. I was propelled by the exploration of Brodhurst (2003) which shows that guardians of debilitated youngsters have a social boundary in participating in administrations. Jawline and Philip (2004) bolster this when discussing Cultural capital, on how guardians from various social layers characterize how their kid is raised. It tends to be perceived how parent’s desires can impact boundaries as they can better standards for their youngster than they are prepared to do. This is the point at which the job of the expert assumes a significant job to conquering these boundaries. Guardians need the help in realizing that there is something incorrectly just as discovering that connecting with various administrations will conquer boundaries. The coordination of children’s administrations has been set up to connect with these guardians. Guaralnick J M discusses early mediation and its significance to both the kid and their family. The improvement of Sure Start is viewed as a urgent early year administrations. They give a significant system of help and direction to help conquer a portion of the reconciliation hindrances parents’ face. Cohan (2005) sees that while administrations change and multi-offices cooperate, so too does the relationship with the youngster change. Guardians are accordingly confronted with the new obstructions of how the kid will intergraded into this framework. This is bolstered by the exploration detailed in the Journal of formative and conduct pediatrics, where guardians and suppliers both point of view in hindrances where kids with inabilities can't incorporate into the framework because of their unpredictable needs of adapting to change and new offices. It tends to be basically contended that our framework will in general fit the kid into the administrations instead of the administration into the kid. Could arrangements not be done in the home or school condition? Has the kid condition been mulled over particularly a youngster who can’t adapt to new places or individuals? These are a portion of the numerous inquiries and hindrances that guardians face. As specialist co-ops it can b asically be said that we tend to take a gander at what we believe is best for the kid instead of tuning in to kid themselves. As a non-permanent parent I too confronted these hindrances as the kid I thought about discovered troublesome is adapting to change. When going to arrangements it caused pressure and nervousness given the numerous boundaries to survive. Youngster A had the challenges of managing the new encompassing as well as the various appearances and evaluations needs. At that point there are the boundaries of looking out for choices. I can say that I thought that it was difficult to know the results and confronted the hindrances of dissatisfaction in not comprehending what is occur and how Child A requirements were being met. It is significant as administrations suppliers to recall while all territories of advancement are interlinked every youngster is a person. Like Young C discussed in video cut three learning guide 17.2 while the contributing of data is significant we need to consider how we assemble this data as it very well may be seen an advancement when expert visit the setting inside brief period to complete comparative appraisals. This is the equivalent for guardians going to various arrangements as it gets baffling to getting a similar input and not answers to the administrations their kid needs. Turner (2003) look into I feel is significant as he discussed the significance for the child’s government assistance of having various organizations while simultaneously having the help of a co-ordinator known as a Key laborer to chip away at their sake to lessen pressure. These techniques would help decrease a few hindrances and offer the help for guardians during troublesome periods. As expressed in the Warnock Report (1978) â€Å"Parents give significant on the off chance that not novel data for experts who can, at that point choose the suitable strategy in the ‘best enthusiasm of the child.† Parent’s interest is urg ent in the continuous improvement of administrations as they will be there for the youngsters when expert are definitely not. A fascinating Journal became obvious was the Facilitators and boundaries for co †ordinated multi-organization administrations which featured that while there is little proof on the viability of multi-office it has been discovered that hindrances are decreased of gathering data, clear points and courses of events. While we talk about organization it is contended that it advances, develops and builds up a style of mentalities and cooperating, it very well may be basically contended that this demeanor continually impacts relationship inside the association and the youngsters needs are met. Like Savage J in Video cut 2 Learning guide 17.2 states there is no reason for ‘demonising’ organizations who are seen as not contributing; it ought to be perceived that they have their own goals which should be connected to shared destinations which should be connected to shared targets. While this is genuine the hindrances the two guardians and schools face are of experts not havin g any desire to over advance their job in settling on formal choices as they don’t feel they have the authority as its past their activity title. The way to heading of interagency work was set out as a procedure of counseling the youngsters, youngsters, and guardians utilizing the administration. It is to empowers the kids to remark on their necessities and issues legitimately identified with interagency administration conveyance. While this is the point boundaries are as yet confronted todays guardians and experts. While the interagency is to help assuage these obstructions as a childcare professional working in the early years I also face the hindrances of been heard. In schools experts likewise need to defeat boundaries to help the youngster just as building parent’s relationship. As an expert we need the guardians support as they are the primary wellspring of imperative data for the youngster government assistance. This can be testing when a kid is obscure to have a unique need and is distinguished inside the school. While the UNCRC (1989) enacts the appropriate for youngsters to be taught in standard schools the tw o professionals and guardians face the hindrances of being heard and having the help expected to permit their kids needs met. In my own setting we face the hindrances of kids not been evaluated before school age particularly youngsters that present with chemical imbalance, this in this way drives onto being declined the help required inside the setting. These boundaries have a continuous impact on the kid as well as the pressure guardians face to being heard. Guralnick J M (1991) features the significance of early intercession and the advantages it has on the child’s improvement too Government DFE (2012) proposing that poor arrangement for youngsters and youngsters with SEND, especially those with necessities, for example, chemical imbalance and dyslexia is probably going to fundamentally influence their personal satisfaction. Anyway it doesn't generally occur by and by. In my own intentional association we don't have the help of the instruction framework as we are viewed as a pre-school and not a nursery despite the fact that the thing that matters is the title. This subsequently doesn't empower us to have the help of early mediation to get kids evaluated for chemical imbalance. These youngsters are enduring and hindrances are set against the pre-school in offering types of assistance and helping guardians to get the best beginning for their kid. It very well may be seen that while new laws and enactment has seen enhancements in c hildren’s administrations

Thursday, August 20, 2020

A Shot in the Life

A Shot in the Life I had literally never taken a screen shot until I got to MIT. Seriously. I guess I just never had needed to or something, but once I got here I started taking them all the time, just to remember that day the windchill hit -20, or that time someone said something stupid on gchat and I clearly had to share it with everyone we knew, or to preserve that one crazy coincidence that would never happen again, or whatever. And now that Im almost at the end of year two here, I have a whole portfolio of hilarious moments forever preserved from the exact second they happened. So if you really want an unedited look at what life is like as an MIT student here is cross section of my semester in screen shots. 1) I hit exactly $0.00 on my TechCash account. Do you realize how hard this is? This is like actually using up all the change in your wallet before you can accumulate any more. This just does not happen. 2) There were once only 24 HOURS UNTIL RING PREMIERE. 3) Three of our Theta freshmen discovered gchat emoticons and then got half the chapter to start sending me lobsters, after they got a hold of my laptop and started sending even more lobsters out to other people from my gmail. Fun fact: you can only have 5 gchat windows open at once on a 13 inch MacBook screen. 4a) My own mother threatened to defriend me on facebook after I posted a TextFromLastNight (about Bill Nye, of all things) as my facebook status. (warning: site is definitely nsfw) 4b) I was also really busy. 5) For the amount of insane integrating it has saved me in 10.213 (thats Chemical and Biological Engineering Thermodynamics to you prefrosh), I owe Wolfram Alpha my first 2 and a half children. This screen shot, given the amazing feats Wolfram Alpha has accomplished over the course of this semester, is rather anticlimactic, but apparently I had needed to take it to show someone some calculation for some pset. 6) A nearly lost calculator almost had a grown man in tears and we all felt his pain. 7) There are the days when the randomness of the email sent out to my sororitys spam list is just absurd. Sample range from the last few days: Justin Bieber Injuries to Biological Engineering Research Prizes. 8) There was the study break that turned into a lets-mock-Shannon-because-she-cant-tell-Asian-ethnicities-apart break, which was great. 9) I was skyping my friend Marianna (one of the lobster freshmen) while she was at home over IAP, and for some reason our connection froze, then restarted, then froze again. And I was left with this lovely face stuck on my screen. 10) But time to post this entry and get back to ordering the Indian food I have open in another tab. Peace out, cub scouts.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Socioeconomic Status Of African Americans Socioeconomic...

African Americans Socioeconomic condition Socioeconomic position is a financial and sociological joint whole measure of a person s effort skill and of an individual s or family’s financial and social condition in relation to others, stand on profits, education, and occupation. While breaking down a family’s SES, the family unit salary, workers education, and occupation are inspected, and additionally joined wage, versus with a person, when their own qualities are evaluated. Alternately all the more ordinarily know not a monetary distinction in society all in all. Socioeconomic status is ordinarily broken into three classes to portray the three zones a family or an individual may fall into. While setting a family or individual into one of these classes, any or the majority of the three variables can be surveyed. Furthermore, low salary and education have been appeared to be solid indicators of a scope of physical and emotional wellness issues, including respiratory infections, joint pain, coronary illness, and schizophrenia. These issues might be because of natural conditions in their working environment, or, on account of dysfunctional behaviors, might be the whole reason for that individual s social problem regardless. Education in higher socioeconomic families is ordinarily pushed as a great deal more vital, both inside of the family and additionally the nearby group. In poorer zones, where nourishment and security are need, education can take a secondary lounge.Show MoreRelatedHow Culture Influences Health Of All Individuals1389 Words    |  6 PagesHow Culture Influences Health in America Culture plays a great role in the health of all individuals. The American race has a vast influence over other cultures that migrate to the United States. 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Wednesday, May 13, 2020


Sample details Pages: 10 Words: 2859 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Did you like this example? THE ROME II REGULATION 1 The Rome II regulation is an example of a European Union Regulation that concerns itself with the conflicts of law that are applicable to obligations that are not contractual. As from January 11th 2009, the Rome II regulation was able to create a set of rules that are harmonized within the European Union in regard to a law that would govern the commercial and civil matters of the members of the EU. This is in respect to non-contractual delict, tort or unjust enrichment. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "THE ROME II REGULATION" essay for you Create order This regulation was formed under EC 864/2007[1]. The Rome Convention of 1980 was able to establish analogous rules that could guide the manner which contractual obligations are carried out. The Rome I regulation was able to replace the Rome Convention, in regard to the laws that are able to guide the manner in which contractual obligations are carried out. This law was applicable to all the members of the European Union, apart from Denmark[2]. The Rome II regulation was initially presented to the commission of the EU in the year 2003. On 11th of July 2007, an amended text was presented to the commission, and officially published on 31st of July 2007[3]. As from 11th of January 2009, the Rome II regulation began to be implemented. However, it applies to all obligations that arose from the 20th of August 2007. However, the document itself is silent in regard to this issue. For purposes of accommodating the various concerns that are raised by the EU parliament, the Rome II regulation came up with applicable laws on privacy and defamation that were acceptable by the members of the European Union. However, this was a difficult process, because most states could not agree on the most acceptable choice of a set of rules that could be used and applied in instances of privacy and defamation. This paper examines this concept of the Rome II regulation, and it seeks to analyze the reasons why the regulation has failed to provide a difference between conduct regulation, and the regulation of loss. The Scope of the Rome II Regulation: Article I of this regulation gives a definition of its scope. In accordance to article I, the Rome II Regulation is applicable to all non contractual issues that pertain to commercial and civil matters. This is specifically in a situation that involves the conflict of laws[4]. These conflicts of laws may arise in a situation where many nationals of different countries are involved in a conflict; hence there is a dilemma on the type of laws that should be used for purposes of solving the mentioned conflict. For example, take a hypothetical situation where a French cyclist is hurt by a British driver, in Germany. Three nations are involved in this situation that is the French, the British, and the Germans. The Rome II regulation provides guidance in the laws that will be applicable in solving the above mentioned hypothetical problem or situation. A number of issues are not covered by the Rome II Regulation, and therefore, there are certain laws and provisions which guide the manner in which disputes arising from them are solved. The issues that it does not cover includes the administrative issues, custom matters, issues dealing with revenues, or the liability of the state in regard to the various actions that it commits. Other areas that the regulation does not cover include issues dealing with marriage, relationships, succession and wills, etc[5]. This is an indication that the Rome II Regulation only involves itself with issues that are not contractual, and binding. The European Union has separate laws and regulations that are responsible for guiding the manner in which conflicts arising from contractual obligations are solved. An example of a contractual law in the European Union, is the 2004/ 18/EC public contract directive issued by the European Union. The aim of this type of law is to help in opening up of the European Union market, by ensuring a free movement of supplies, and products to the member states of the EU. This is an indication that matters touching on contract are not under the mandate of the Rome II Regulation. The central provision of Rome II regulation is found in article 4. Article 4 provides for the residual and the general rules which guide the application of the Rome II regulations. For instance, article 4 (1) of the regulations denotes that the law that shall apply when a damage occurs, is the law of the nation in which the damage under consideration has happen ed. For instance, in our hypothetical example above, three nations were involved in a dispute. That is France, Germany, and United Kingdom. The cyclist was hurt in Germany, and therefore, the laws that applied in this scenario, were the laws of Germany. This is despite the parties involved in the conflict were not the citizens of Germany. A good example of the applicability of this principle is seen in the ruling by the ruling of the German Court, in 2009. This was a case brought by a registered association in Germany, against an airline company that had its registration license in Latvia. Under this case, the German Court ruled that as in accordance to the provisions of 4 (1) of the Rome II regulation, any action of the airline company that causes a damage within a particular EU territory, then the laws of the country where the damage occurred shall be applicable, and not the laws of Latvia[6]. Through this ruling, the German Federal Court was able to apply the provisions contai ned in the Rome II regulation. However, the place of damage rule, as advocated by the Rome II regulation has two major exceptions. The first exception touches on the concept of habitual residence, whereby if the two parties to the conflict had the same habitual residence, then the laws of that state shall apply. The second exception to this rule is that if the tort that occurred is very close to another country, then the laws of the country under consideration would apply. Conduct Regulation and Loss Regulation: Rome II regulation, under article 17 introduces the concepts of conduct, and the rules of safety. This article denotes that when a judicial system is assessing the conduct of an individual, who is liable for an offence, the judicial court should consider the various laws on conduct and safety in regard to the situation under consideration. These laws under consideration should be the ones which were in place at the time the event occurred, and the place of the conflict or the tort. Symeon Symoneides explains that the Rome II regulation is inefficient in explaining this concept of the conduct of an individual[7]. This is because it leaves it to the interpretation of the interpretation of the various courts and states under consideration.[8] This is a weakness of the Rome II regulation, and this is because it fails in the harmonization of the various laws of the European Union, which was one of the major objectives of establishing this regulation. This aspect is problematic, and it may lead to a miscarriage of Justice. Take for instance, a conflict that emanates between a German Driver who is able to injure a German tourist in the region of Ireland. This type of conflict can be heard by a German court, because of the exception of the Place Rule Damage, as contained in Section 4 of the Rome II Regulation. That is, if two people share a habitual residence, then the laws of the resident country shall apply. In determining the liability of the Germa n driver who has injured a German tourist, then the court has the responsibility of analyzing the conducts of the German driver, and a fact to consider is that in Ireland, an individual has to drive on the left side of the road, as opposed to Germany, where an individual has to ride on the right side of the right side of the road. By closely looking at this situation, the German court is at crossroad at whether it is using the international law or domestic laws in solving the dispute under consideration, hence this aspect of safety and conduct is controversial in nature. However, the Rome II regulation requires that the domestic laws, in regard to safety regulation and conduct should be applied in any matter that is brought before the court. This requirement by the Rome II standard to use the local laws in the determination of the concepts of safety and conduct is not sufficient. This is because some provisions of foreign law, such as laws formed and developed by competent instit utions such as tribunals in regard to the determination of a conduct of an individual should be taken into consideration. Therefore, in the development of conduct regulation, Symeonides explains that the ROME II regulation has failed[9]. Furthermore, article 17 of the Regulation only mentions the examination of the conduct of an individual who is liable for an offence. However, this law does not provide an analysis on how to examine and evaluate the conduct of a suspect, and that of his or her victim. Examples include, whether the person under consideration was driving his car under the influence of alcohol, or if he or she was provoked, and that is the reason why they acted in a manner that they acted[10]. It is based on the weaknesses of article 17 of the Rome II regulation to precisely give a definition of the term conduct, and how to evaluate it, that the regulation fails to efficiently make a distinction between loss regulation and conduct regulation. Take an example on case s that emanates from losses, because of road damages and accidents. Compensation of losses that emanates from road accidents are not always paid by the person who committed the offence, but by the insurance agencies[11]. Based on this fact, a rule which has the responsibility of determining the law that is applicable to road accidents is of utmost importance to the insurance organizations and agencies that would be responsible for paying the losses suffered by the parties in the road accident. Article 17, of the Rome II Regulation is such kind of a law. This is because it introduces the concept of conduct, in examining whether an individual is liable for an offence or not. However, insurance companies are at a dilemma on how to examine and evaluate this concept of conduct. This is left to the laws of home countries, but a problem may arise in circumstances of habitual residence citizens, who came from a country whose transportation laws are different from the transportation laws of the country where the trial happens[12]. Article 18 is also another controversial law or principle that is stated under the Rome II Regulation, which fails to provide a clear distinction between the regulation of an individualà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s conduct, and the regulation of their losses. This regulation denotes that an individual who has suffered losses may claim compensation directly from the insurance agents of the person who has caused the damage or the loss. This is as long as the low that regulates non-contractual obligations and the law that regulates insurance relations has a provision for this type of conduct. This regulation is advantageous in the sense that both laws that guide a particular aspect are placed under the same equal status. However, this law is controversial in the sense that it does not identify the manner in which the courts should use for purposes of determining the laws that should be used in protecting the victim[13]. For example, should the court use a law that is more advantageous to the victim, or should the court allow the victim, with the advice of his or her lawyers to determine the best law that would protect their interests. Based on this dilemma, scholar explains that the Rome II regulation has failed to provide a clear distinction between the regulation of losses and the regulation of conducts. Conduct is seen in regard to the action that the court should use in determining the best approach of solving the case. Furthermore, the regulation of losses is also seen on the dilemma in which the courts have, on the best law that they can use for purposes of protecting the interests of the victim. Furthermore, under the Rome II Regulation, it is difficult to identify and explain how to assess damages or losses. For instance, article 2 (1) of the regulation manages to identify and explain what this concept of damage is[14]. It denotes that damages or losses are consequences that are arising from unjust enrichment, tort, or even delict. Controversy lies on article 4 (1) which explains that the Rome II Regulation is only applicable to indirect consequences. This law ignores direct consequences which have the capability of causing an indirect damage. Therefore, article 4 (1) of the Regulations makes it difficult to distinguish between the direct and the indirect conducts, that can lead to a damage[15]. Because of the complexity of this situation, the Rome II regulation requires the legislations of the country that is handling the case to determine the direct and the indirect conduct, and therefore whether the action can result to a damage, and claims of compensation, in accordance to the rules of the state under consideration. Conclusion: In conclusion, the Rome II regulation fails to provide a distinction between conduct regulation and loss regulation. For instance, article 17 of this law just identifies that the courts have to analyze the conduct of an individual, while determining if he or s he is liable for an offense or not. This is ambiguous, because the regulation does not provide the mechanism that should be used for purposes of examining and evaluating the conduct of an individual, that lead to the loss or damage under consideration. Furthermore, article 4 (1) of the regulation denotes that only direct consequences can lead to the breach of the Regulation, hence kit would attract penalties. However, this law fails to identify what are these direct conducts, and it is left to the national courts to interpret them, based on the provisions of their laws. However, this is controversial in the sense that when a national court seeks to interpret the law based on the conduct of an individual in a foreign land, and the conduct under consideration directly conflicts with the laws and provision of the court involved in the trial of the defendants. This specifically applies to the parties who are habitual residents of one country, and they are being tried by their courts, in a crime committed in a foreign land. Article 18 of this law is also controversial in nature, and it does not provide a clear distinction between the regulations of the conduct, and that of the law. This is because it provides for the application of two laws, in regard to the compensation of a loss that emanates from road accidents. These laws are the non-contractual obligation laws, and the insurance laws that touch on compensation. The Rome II regulation does not identify how the courts should apply these laws, for purposes of compensating a victim, and regulating the conduct of an offender. Bibliography: A Dickson, The Rome II Regulation : the law applicable to non-contractual obligations. Updating supplement (1st, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2010) J Ahern and W Binchy, The Rome II regulation on the law applicable to non-contractual obligations : a new international litigation regime (1st, Leiden, Boston 2009) P. Rogerson and J. Collier, Colliers conflict of laws (4th, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2013) S Symeonides, Codifying choice of law around the world : an international comparative analysis (1st, Oxford, New York 2014) [1] A Dickson, The Rome II Regulation : the law applicable to non-contractual obligations. Updating supplement (1st, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2010) p. 44 [2] J Ahern and W Binchy, The Rome II regulation on the law applicable to non-contractual obligations : a new international litigation regime (1st, Leiden, Boston 2009) p. 26 [3] A Dickson, The Rome II Regulation : the law applicable to non-contractual obligations. Updating supplement (1st, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2010) p. 11 [4] A Dickson, The Rome II Regulation : the law applicable to non-contractual obligations. Updating supplement (1st, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2010) p. 53 [5] J Ahern and W Binchy, The Rome II regulation on the law applicable to non-contractual obligations : a new international litigation regime (1st, Leiden, Boston 2009) p. 26 [6] J Ahern and W Binchy, The Rome II regulation on the law applicable to non-contractual obligations : a new international litigation re gime (1st, Leiden, Boston 2009) p. 19 [7] S Symeonides, Codifying choice of law around the world : an international comparative analysis (1st, Oxford, New York 2014) p. 29 [8] S Symeonides, Codifying choice of law around the world : an international comparative analysis (1st, Oxford, New York 2014) p. 30 [9] S Symeonides, Codifying choice of law around the world : an international comparative analysis (1st, Oxford, New York 2014) p. 33 [10] P. Rogerson and J. Collier, Colliers conflict of laws (4th, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2013) p. 27 [11] P. Rogerson and J. Collier, Colliers conflict of laws (4th, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2013) p. 33 [12] P. Rogerson and J. Collier, Colliers conflict of laws (4th, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2013) p. 37 [13] P. Rogerson and J. Collier, Colliers conflict of laws (4th, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2013) p. 28 [14] P. Rogerson and J. Collier, Colliers conflict of laws (4th, Cambridg e University Press, Cambridge 2013) p. 42 [15] P. Rogerson and J. Collier, Colliers conflict of laws (4th, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2013) p. 43

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Perfect Competition Free Essays

Perfect Competition In  economic theory,  perfect competition  describes markets such that no participants are large enough to have the  market power  to set the price of a homogeneous product. Because the conditions for perfect competition are strict, there are few if any perfectly competitive markets. Still, buyers and sellers in some  auction-type markets, say for  commodities  or some financial assets, may approximate the concept. We will write a custom essay sample on Perfect Competition or any similar topic only for you Order Now Perfect competition serves as a benchmark against which to measure real-life and  imperfectly competitive  markets. Generally, a perfectly competitive market exists when every participant is a â€Å"price taker†, and no participant influences the price of the product it buys or sells. Specific characteristics may include: * Infinite buyers and sellers  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ An infinite number of consumers with the willingness and ability to buy the product at a certain price, and infinite producers with the willingness and ability to supply the product at a certain price. * Zero entry and exit barriers  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ A lack of entry and exit barriers makes it extremely easy to enter or exit a perfectly competitive market. Perfect factor mobility  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ In the long run  factors of production  are perfectly mobile, allowing free long term adjustments to changing market conditions. * Perfect information  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ All consumers and producers are assumed to have perfect knowledge of price, utility, quality and production methods of products. * Zero transaction costs  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Buyers and sellers d o not incur costs in making an exchange of goods in a perfectly competitive market. * Profit maximization  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Firms are assumed to sell where marginal costs meet marginal revenue, where the most profit is generated. Homogenous products  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ The qualities and characteristics of a market good or service do not vary between different suppliers. * Non-increasing returns to scale  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ The lack of increasing returns to scale (or economies of scale) ensures that there will always be a sufficient number of firms in the industry. * Property rights  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Well defined property rights determine what may be sold, as well as what rights are conferred on the buyer. In the short run, perfectly-competitive markets are not  productively efficient  as output will not occur where marginal cost is equal to average cost (MC=AC). They are  allocatively efficient, as output will always occur where  marginal cost  is equal to  marginal revenue(MC=MR). In the long run, perfectly competitive markets are both allocatively and productively efficient. In perfect competition, any profit-maximizing producer faces a  market price  equal to its  marginal cost  (P=MC). This implies that a factor’s price equals the factor’s marginal revenue product. It allows for derivation of the supply curve on which the neoclassical approach is based. This is also the reason why â€Å"a monopoly does not have a supply curve†. The abandonment of price taking creates considerable difficulties for the demonstration of a general equilibrium except under other, very specific conditions such as that of monopolistic competition. By definition a perfectly competitive market is one in which no single firm has to influence either the equilibrium price of the market or the the total quantity supplied in the market. Thus, a firm operating in a competitive market has no incentive to supply at a price lower than market equilibrium price, as it can sell all it wants to supply at equilibrium. At the same time, the firm cannot sell at price higher than the market price, because it will be able find no buyers at that price, and its sales volume will drop down to zero. Thus, a firm operating in perfectly competitive market has to accept whatever is the market equilibrium price, and therefore it is called a price taker. In contrast, a monopoly firm is the only supplier in the market and therefore has full control over the market prices and total market supplies. Therefore, a firm operating in a monopoly market fixes its price in such a way that for the quantity demanded by customers at that market price the marginal revenue of the firm is equal to its marginal costs. In this way way it decides the market price as well as the total quantity if a commodity supplied in the market, and therefore it is called a price maker. Imperfect Competition In  economic theory,  imperfect competition  is the competitive situation in any market where the sellers in the market sell different/dissimilar of goods, (haterogenous) that does not meet the conditions of perfect competition. Forms of imperfect competition include: * Monopoly, in which there is only one seller of a good. * Oligopoly, in which there are few sellers of a good. * Monopolistic competition, in which there are many sellers producing highly differentiated goods. * Monopsony, in which there is only one buyer of a good. * Oligopsony, in which there are few buyers of a good. * Information asymmetry  when one competitor has the advantage of more or better information. There may also be imperfect competition due to a time lag in a market. An example is the â€Å"jobless recovery†. There are many growth opportunities available after a recession, but it takes time for employers to react, leading to high  unemployment. High unemployment decreases wages, which makes hiring more attractive, but it takes time for new jobs to be created. A type of  market that does not operate under the rigid rules of perfect competition. Perfect competition implies an industry or market in which no one supplier can influence prices, barriers to entry and exit are small, all suppliers offer the same goods, there are a large number of   suppliers and buyers, and information on pricing and process is readily available. Forms of imperfect competition include monopoly, oligopoly, monopolistic competition, monopsony and oligopsony. Pure Competition Pure Competition  is a market situation where there is a large number of independent sellers offering identical products. Pure competition is a term for an industry where competition isstagnant and relatively non competitive. Companies within the pure competition category have little control of price or distribution of product. Advertising, market research, and product development play a very little role in these companies/industries. A  market  characterized by a large  number  of independent  sellers  of standardized  products, free  flow  of information, and  free entry  and  exit. Each seller is a â€Å"price taker† rather than a â€Å"price maker†. Also sometimes referred to as  perfect competition,  pure  competition  is a situation in which the market for a product is populated with so many consumers and producers that no one entity has the ability to influence the price of the product sufficiently to cause a fluctuation. Within this type of market setting, sellers are considered to be price takers, indicating that they are not in a position to set the price for their products outside a certain range, given the fact that so many other producers are active within the market. At the same time, consumers have little influence over the prices offered by the producers, since there is no singular group of consumers that dominates the demand. In reality,  pure  competition  is more  theory  than actual fact. While there are rare situations in which a marketplace functions with  pure  competition  for a short period of time, the situation normally shifts as various factors change the stalemate created by a multiplicity of sellers and buyers. This is often due to the somewhat stringent set of factors that must be present in order for the  competition  to be considered perfect or  pure. There are several essential characteristics that define  pure  competition. One has to do with the balance of buyers to sellers. When there is an infinite number of buyers who are willing to purchase the products offered for sale by an infinite number of producers, at a certain price, the opportunity for anyone to take actions that shift the market price is extremely limited. The price remains more or less the same, and the same number of buyers purchase the products from the same range of producers. With  pure  competition, sellers can easily exit or enter the marketplace, without creating any undue influence on the price. Consumers continue to make purchases at the same rate, even if two companies leave the market and only one new one enters. The collective producers who are still in the market simply continue to produce enough products to meet consumer demand, without a shift in market price. Businesses engaged in a  pure  competition  market usually structure production so that they incur marginal costs at a level where they can earn the most profit. When the product line is homogeneous, this means the products produced are essentially the same as the product line produced by other  suppliers  in the marketplace. Assuming the costs are in line withmarginal revenue, the business can generate a consistent profit for as long as the condition of  pure  competition  is present in the market. How to cite Perfect Competition, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Council in Different Areas in Australia-Free-Samples for Students

Question: Discuss about the activities of the various council in Australia and their repective areas. Answer: Introduction This is a report, which describes the activities of the various council and their respective areas. The report is trying to portray the works of the different council in different areas in Australia. The main highlight of the report is the Ku ring gai council, which is a northern region in Sydney. The report talks about the various initiatives taken by the council and how they have made a difference for the community in that region. The objective of the study is to create a benchmark for the Ku ring gai council by comparing its activities with the other councils. Methodology Secondary data has been collected from the website of the Australian bureau of Statistics, which will give us data related to activities, demographics and other aspects of the various council (Mackey and Gass 2015). The data is also collected from the council website and then all the data are collected to find out the standard procedures that has to be followed. Comparisons The council has to be to more involved in the activities and help in the improvements of the daily life of the community. The welfare of the community is a priority and all the different classes of people have to be provided with their needs (Mcgregor and Kelly 2015). The council will have to create equal opportunity for the employment of the people, which will help in the overall growth of the community. The backward classes who are the minority in the country will have to be taken care of and they should be given proper opportunities and help to improve their disposable income (Ruming and Houston 2013). LGBT is another integral part of the society and lots of people are facing problems because they are unable to express their feelings. thus, the council will have to increase awareness about this community and help them open up and share their feelings (McIlroy 2017). Recommendations It is recommended that the council should start by helping the general society and this can be achieved by improving the quality of life. Environmental protection will have to taken which will keep the community free of diseases and provide them with a healthy environment to live in. The council will have to provide job opportunities for people irrespective of their class, sexual orientation and social class. Conclusion Thus, it can be concluded from the report that the benchmark that has been set shows that the council will have to focus on the protection of the environment in the local region. The second aspect that will have to taken as a priority is the development of the quality of life for the people who live in the local area. The local community consist of diverse people so the community will make sure that all the people of the community will be given equal benefits and opportunities. This will help in the overall development of the area. References 2017.Plans and strategies | Bayside City Council. [online] Available at: [Accessed 5 Aug. 2017]. Callen, J. 2017.Ku-ring-gai Council - Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex Retrieved 5 August 2017, from Council, N. 2017.North Sydney Council - Tree Policies Strategies. [online] Available at: [Accessed 5 Aug. 2017]. Mackey, A. and Gass, S.M., 2015.Second language research: Methodology and design. Routledge. Mcgregor, L. and Kelly, A.H., 2015. Ku-ring-gai, New South Wales: A Battleground between urban consolidation and green amenity. McIlroy, J., 2017. Council mergers blocked by court decision.Green Left Weekly, (1132), p.6. 2017.Northern Beaches Council | Northern Beaches Retrieved 5 August 2017, from Ruming, K. and Houston, D., 2013. Enacting planning borders: consolidation and resistance in Ku-ring-gai, Sydney.Australian Planner,50(2), pp.123-129. 2017.Searching: Australian Bureau of Statistics ( Retrieved 5 August 2017, from 2017.Local and Regional Statistics | Northern Beaches Council. [online] Available at: [Accessed 5 Aug. 2017].